ADHD and its Effects on Job Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model


  • Ernesto Rosario-Hernández Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
  • Lillian Rovira-Millán University of Puerto Rico, Cayey, Puerto Rico
  • Elisa Santiago-Pacheco Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
  • Xiomara Arzola-Berrios Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
  • Clara M. Padovani REIO Puerto Rico, Ponce, Puerto Rico
  • Shiara Francesquini-Oquendo Joel Institute ORG, Carolina, Puerto Rico
  • José Soto-Franceschini Ponce Health Sciences University, Puerto Rico
  • José I. Pons-Madera Universidad Carlos Albizu, San Juan, Puerto Rico
  • Lourdes Peña Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce, Puerto Rico
  • Elba Vélez Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico, Ponce, Puerto Rico


Palabras clave:

ADHD; Job Performance; Task Performance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Counterproductive Work Behavior, Work Engagement


The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of ADHD on job performance and the possible mediating role of work engagement and moderating role of gender. Hypotheses testing were performed using structural equation modeling base on PLS-SEM approach applied to a sample of 448 employees from different organizations in Puerto Rico. The results shown that ADHD has a direct effect on task performance and counterproductive work behaviors, but none on organizational citizenship behaviors. Meanwhile, the relationship between ADHD and task performance/organizational citizenship behavior were mediated by work engagement. On the other hand, gender moderated the relationship between ADHD and counterproductive work behaviors on which males were more strongly to show counterproductive work behaviors under high levels of ADHD than females. Findings are discussed in the light of their theoretical and practical implications for future studies.


Able, S.L., Johnston, J. A., Adler, L. A., & Swindle, R.W. (2007). Functional and psychosocial impairment in adults with undiagnosed ADHD. Psychological Medicine, 37(1), 97-107.

Ackerman, P.L., Shapiro, S., & Beier, M.E. (2011). Subjective estimates of job performance af-ter job preview: Determinants of anticipated leaning curves. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78(1), 31-48.

Aguinis, H., Beaty, J.C., Boik, R.J., & Pierce, C.A. (2005). Effect Size and Power in Assessing Moderating Effects of Categorical Variables Using Multiple Regression: A 30-Year Re-view. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(1), 94-107.

Ali, H. & Davies, D.R. (2003). The effects of age, sex and tenure on the job performance of rubber tappers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 381-391.

American Psychiatric Association, DSM-5 Task Force. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5™ (5th ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc..

American with Disabilities Act Amendments act of 2008, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. PL 110-325 S 3406. (2008).

Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990).

Arnst, C. (2003, October 27). Attention deficit: Not just kid stuff. Business Week, 84-86.

Bagozzi, R.P. and Edwards, J.R. (1998) A General Approach for Representing Constructs in Organizational Research. Organizational Research Methods, 1, 45-87.

Bakker A. B. (2010). Engagement and" job crafting": Engaged employees create their own great place to work. In Albrecht S. L. (Ed.), New horizons in management. Handbook of employee engagement: Perspectives, issues, research and practice (pp. 229-244). Northampton, MA, US: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008). Work engagement: An emerging concept in organizational psychology. Work & Stress, 22, 187–200.

Bakker, A.B. (2008). The work-related flow inventory: Construction and initial validation of the WOLF. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(3), 400-414.

Bakker, A.B. & Demerouti, E. (2007). The Job-Demands-Resources model: State of the art. Journal of managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309-328.

Bakker, A.B. & Demerouti, E. (2008). Towards a model of work engagement. Career Develop-ment International, 13(3), 209-223.

Bakker, A.B. & Demerouti, E. (2009). The crossover of work engagement between working couples: A closer look at the role of empathy. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24(3), 220-236.

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: con-structing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 65-94.

Barkley, R. A. & Murphy, K. R. (2010). Impairment in occupational functioning and adult ADHD: The predictive utility of executive function (EF) ratings versus EF tests. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 25(3), 157-173.

Barkley, R. A. & Murphy, K. R. (2011). The nature of executive function (EF) deficits in daily life activities in adults with ADHD and their relationship to performance on EF tests. Jour-nal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 33(1), 137-158.

Barkley, R. A., Murphy, K. R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guilford.

Bateman, T. & Organ, D. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier syndrome: The relation-ship between affect and employee “citizenship”. Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587-595.

Bergeron, D. M. (2007). The potential paradox of organizational citizenship behavior: Good citizens at what cost? Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1078–1095.

Berry, C., Ones, D.S., & Sackett, P.R. (2007). Interpersonal deviance, organizational deviance, and their common correlates: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 410-424.

Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Spencer, T.J., Mick, E., Monuteaux, M.C. & Aleardi, M. (2006) Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: a controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(4), 524-540.

Borman, W.C., & Motowidlo, S. J. (1997). Task performance and contextual performance: The meaning for personnel selection research. Human Performance, 10(2), 99-109.

Borman, W.C., Penner, L. A., Allen, T. D., & Motowidlo, S. J. (2001). Personality predictors of citizenship performance. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 9(1-2), 52-69.

Brassett-Bundler, A. & Butler, N. (2004). Prevalence and adult outcomes of attention-deficit/ hyper-activity disorder: Evidence from a 30-years prospective longitudinal study. Bedford Group for Lifecourse & Statistics Studies, Institute of Education, University of London.

Breslin, F.C. & Pole, J.D. (2009). Work injury risk among young people with learning disabil-ities and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Canada. American Journal of Public Health, 99(8), 1423-30.

Brod, M., Pohlman, B., Lasser, R. & Hodgkins, P. (2012). Comparison of the burden of illness for adults with ADHD across seven countries: a qualitative study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(47), 1-17.

Brook, J.S., Brook, D.W., Zhang, C., Seltzer, N. & Finch, S.J. (2013). Adolescent ADHD and adult physical and mental health, work performance, and financial stress. Pediatrics, 131(1), 5-13.

Brown, T.E. (2005). Attention deficit disorder: The unfocused mind in children and adults. New Ha-ven, CT: Yale University Press.

Carroll, C. B., & Ponteretto, J. G. (1998). Employment counseling for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Issues without answers. Journal of Employment Counseling, 35(2), 79–95.

Chin, W.W. (2010). How to write up and report PLS analyses. In W. Esposito Vinzi, W.W. Chin, J. Henseler, & H. Wang (Eds.), Handbook of partial least squares: Concepts, methods and applications (pp. 655-690). London: Springer.

Chin, W.W., Marcolin, B.L. and Newsted, P.R. (2003). A Partial Least Squares Latent Variable Modeling Approach for Measuring Interaction Effects: Results from a Monte Carlo Simula-tion Study and an Electronic-Mail Emotion/Adoption Study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189-217.

Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S., & Slaughter, J.E. (2011). Work engagement: A quantitative re-view a test of its relations with task and contextual performance. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), 89-136.

Creswell, J.W. & Creswell, J.D. (2018). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed meth-ods approaches. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.

Cross, C.P., Coping, L.T., & Campbell, A. (2011). Sex differences in impulsivity: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 97-130.

Cullen, M. J. & Sackett, P. R. (2003). Personality and counterproductive workplace behavior. En M. R. Barrick & A. M. Ryan (Eds.), Personality and work (pp. 150–182). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dávila, M.C., Finkelstein, M.A., & Castein, J.I. (2011). Diferencias de género en conducta pro-social: El comportamiento de ciudadanía organizacional. Anales de Psicología, 27(2), 498-506.

de Graaf, R., Kessler, R.C., Fayyad, J., ten Have, M., Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., Borges, G., Demyttenaere, K., Gasquet, I., de Girolamo, G., Haro, J.M., Jin, R., Karam, E.G., Ormel, J. & Po-sada-Villa, J. (2008). The prevalence and effects of adult at-tention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the per-formance of workers: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 65(12), 835-42.

Delisle, J. & Braun, C.M.J. (2011). A context for Normalizing Impulsiveness at Work for Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (Combined Type). Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 26(7), 602-613.

Demerouti, E., Bakker, A.B., Nachreiner, F., & Scahufeli, W.B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512.

Derakshan, N., & Eysenck, M. W. (2009). Anxiety, processing efficiency, and cognitive per-formance: New developments from attentional control theory. European Psychologist, 14(2), 168-176.

DeVellis, R.F. (2017). Scale development: Theory and applications. SAGE Publications.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). John M. MacEachran memorial lecture series; 1985. Sex differences in social be-havior: A social-role interpretation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Eagly, A.H. & Steffen, V.J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 309-330.

Ellis, L. (1991). Monoamine oxidase and criminality: Identifying an apparent biological marker for antisocial behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 28(2), 227-251.

Erickson, T. J. (2005). Testimony submitted before the US Senate Committee on Health, Edu-cation, Labor and Pensions, May 26.

Eysenck, M. W., & Derakshan, N. (2011). New perspectives in attentional control theory. Per-sonality and Individual Differences, 50(7), 955–960.

Eysenck, M. W., Derakshan, N., Santos, R., & Calvo, M. G. (2007). Anxiety and cognitive per-formance: Attentional control theory. Emotion, 7(2), 336-353.

Falk, R.F. & Miller, N.B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. The University of Akron Press.

Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Spencer, T., Wilens, T., Seidman, L. J., Mick, E. & Doyle, A.E. (2000). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview. Biological Psychiatry, 48(1), 9-20.

Fornell, C. & Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fox, S., & Spector, P. E. (1999). A model of work frustration-aggression. Journal of Organiza-tional Behavior, 20(6), 915-931.

Fox, S., Spector, P.E. & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for auton-omy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59(3), 291-309.

Furr, R.M. & Bacharach, V.R. (2008). Psychometrics: An introduction. SAGE Publications.

Garon, N., Bryson, S.E. & Smith, I.M. (2008). Executive function in preschoolers: a review us-ing an integrative framework. Psychological Bulletin, 134(1), 31-60.

Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE Publications.

Hair, J.F., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Mar-keting Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-151.

Hakstian, A.R., Ferrell, S. & Tweed, R.G. (2002). The assessment of counterproductive tenden-cies by means of the California Psychological Inventory. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 10(1-2), 58-86.

Halbesleben, J. R. B. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: Relationships with burn-out, demands, resources and consequences. In A. Bakker & M. P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engage-ment: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp. 102–117). Routledge.

Halbesleben, J. R., Neveu, J. P., Paustian-Underdahl, S. C., & Westman, M. (2014). Getting to the “COR”: Understanding the role of resources in conservation of resources theory. Jour-nal of Management, 40(5), 1334-1364.

Halbesleben, J.R.B., Wheeler, A.R. & Shanine, K.K. (2013). The moderating role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the work engagement-performance process. Journal of Oc-cupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 132-143.

Hall, R.J., Snell, A.F., & Foust, M.S. (1999). Item parceling strategies in SEM: Investigating the subtle effects of unmodeled secondary constructs. Organizational Research Methods, 2(3), 233-256.

Harrington, B. (2007). The work-life evolution study. Boston College Center for Work and Fami-ly.

Harris, H. (2004). Global careers: Work‐life issues and the adjustment of women internation-al managers. Journal of Management Development, 23(9), 818-832.

Hartmann, T. (1993). Attention deficit disorder: A different perception. Underwood-Miller.

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A re-gression-based approach. The Guilford Press.

Heilman, M. (1983). Sex bias in work settings: The lack of fit model. In B. Staw, & L. Cum-mings (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 5). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Heilman, M. E., & Chen, J. J. (2005). Same behavior, different consequences: reactions to men's and women's altruistic citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 431-441.

Henerson, M. E., Morris, L. L. y Fitz-Gibbon, C. T. (1987). How to Measure Attitudes. SAGE Publications.

Henle, C.A. (2005). Predicting workplace deviance from the interaction between organiza-tional justice and personality. Journal of Managerial Issues, 17(2), 247-263.

Henseler, J. & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Goodness-of-fit indices for partial least squares path mod-eling. Computational Statistics, 28(2), 565-580.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C.M., Sinkovics, R.R. (2009) The use of partial least squares path model-ing in international marketing. In R.R. Sinkovics & P.N. Ghaauri (Eds.), New Challenges to International Marketing (Advances in International Marketing, Volume 20, p. 277-319). Em-erald Group Publishing Limited.

Hershcovis, M.S., Turner, N., Barling, J., Arnold, K.A., Dupré, K.E., Innes, M., Le Blanc, M.M., Sivanathan, N. (2007). Predicting workplace aggression: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 228-238.

Ho, V., Wong, S., & Lee, C. (2011). A tale of passion: Linking job passion and cognitive en-gagement to employee work performance. Journal of Management Studies, 48(1), 26-41.

Hobfoll, S.E. (2001). The influence of culture, and community and the nested-self in the stress process: advances in conservation of resources theory. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(3), 337-370.

Hobfoll, S.E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J.-P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Re-view of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 103-128.

Hodgkins, P., Montejano, L., Sasane, R., Huse, D. (2011). Cost of illness and comorbidities in adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A retrospective analysis. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders, 13(2), e1–e12.

Hulett, A.L. (2013). An examination of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and counterproductive behavior. Tesis sometida como requisito parcial al grado de maestría de la Universidad de Georgia.

Ilgen, D. R., & Hollenbeck, J. R. 1991. The structure of work: Job design and roles. In M.D. Dunnette & L.M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp.165-207). Consulting Psychology Press.

Jackson, B. & Farrugia, D. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of adults with attention deficit hy-peractivity disorder. Journal of Counseling & Development, 75(4), 312-319.

Jex, S.M. (2002). Organizational Psychology: A scientist-practitioner approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Jose, P.E. (2013). Doing statistical mediation and moderation. The Guilford Press.

Kahn, W.A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692-724.

Kakar, S. (2002). Gender and police officers’ perceptions of their job performance: An analysis of the relationship between gender and perceptions of job performance. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 13(3), 238-256.

Karatepe, O. M. (2011). Do job resources moderate the effect of emotional dissonance on burnout? A study in the city of Ankara, Turkey. International Journal of Contemporary Hospi-tality Management, 23(1), 44-65.

Karatepe, O. M. (2013). High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: The mediation of work engagement. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1), 132-140.

Kataria, A., Garg, P. y Rastogi, R. (2013). Psychological climate and organizational effective-ness: Role of work engagement. The IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, XII (3), 33-46.

Kenny, D.A. (2016). Moderation. Autor.

Kessler, R. C., Adler, L., Barkley, R., Biederman, J., Conners, C. K., Demler, O., Faraone, S.V., Greenhill, L.L., Howes, M.J., Secnik, K., Spencer, T., Ustun, T.B., Walters, E.E., Zaslavsky, A. M. (2006). The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(4), 716-723.

Kessler, R. C., Lane, M., Stang, P. E., & Van Brunt, D. L. (2009). The prevalence and workplace costs of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a large manufacturing firm. Psy-chological Medicine, 39(1), 137-147.

Kessler, R.C., Adler, L., Ames, M., Demler, O., Faraone, S., Hiripi, E., Howes, M.J., Jin, R., Secnik, K., Spencer, T., Ustun, T.B. & Walters, E.E. (2005). The World Health Orgnization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): A short screening scale for use in the general popu-lation. Psychological Medicine, 35(2), 245-256.

Kidder, D.L. & McLean Parks, (2001). The good soldier: Who is s(he)? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(8), 939-959.

Kirkwood, J. & Tootell, B. (2008). Is entrepreneurship the answer to achieving work-family balance? Journal of Management & Organization, 14(3), 285-302.

Kitchen, S. G. (2006). Employees with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Washington, DC: Job Accommodation Network, U. S. Department of Labor.

Kline, P. (1993). The Handbook of Psychological Testing. Routledge.

Küpper, T., Haavik, J., Drexler, H., Ramos-Quiroga, J.A., Wermelskirchen, D., Prutz, C & Schauble, B. (2012). The negative impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on oc-cupational health in adults and adolescents. International Archives of Occupational and Envi-ronmental Health, 85(8), 837-847.

Lamberg, L. (2003). ADHD often undiagnosed in adults. Journal of the American Medical Associa-tion, 290(12), 1565–1567.

Lange, K.W., Reichl, S., Lange, K.M., Tucha, L. & Tucha, O. (2010). The history of attention dé-ficit hyperactvity disorder. Attention Deficits and Hyperactivity Disorders, 2(4), 241-255.

Lehto, J.E., Juuja¨rvi, P., Kooistra, L., & Pulkkinen, L. (2003). Dimensions of executive func-tioning: Evidence from children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 59-80.

Leiter, M.P. & Bakker, A.B. (2010). Work engagement: An introduction. En A.B. Bakker & M.P. Leiter (Eds.), Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research (pp.1-9). The Psy-chology Press.

Lindstedt, H. & Umb-Calsson, O. (2013). Cognitive assistive technology and professional support in evaryday life for adults with ADHD. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Tech-nology, 8(5), 402-408.

Little, T.D., Cunningham, W.A., Shahar, G., & Widaman, K.F. (2002). To parcel or not to par-cel: Exploring the question, weighing the merits. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 151–173.

Lovell, S.E., Kahn, A.S., Anton, J., Davidson, A., Dowling, E., Post, D., & Mason, C. (1999). Does gender affect the link between organizational citizenship behavior and performance evaluation? Sex Roles, 41(5-6), 469-478.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. Stanford University Press.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1980). Sex Differences in Aggression: A Rejoinder and Re-prise. Child Development, 51(4), 964-980.

Macey, H.C. & Schneider, B. (2008). The Meaning of Employee Engagement. Industrial and Or-ganizational Psychology: Perspective on Science and Practice, 1(1), 3-30.

Mackey, J.D., Roth, P.L., Van Iddekinge, C.H., & Farland, L.A. (2019). A meta-analysis of gen-der proportionality effects on job performance. Groups & Organization Management, 44(3), 578-610.

Mannuzza, S., Klein, R.G., Bessler, A., Malloy, P. & LaPadula, M. (1993). Adult outcome of hy-peractive boys. Educational achievement, occupational rank, and psychiatric status. Ar-chives of Geneneral Psychiatry, 50(7), 565-76.

Martínez Alvarado, L.Y., Rosario-Hernández, E., & Rovira-Millán, L.V. (2017). La relación en-tre la inseguridad laboral y el bienestar psicológico en una muestra de asistentes de vuelo: El papel moderador del engagement en el trabajo. Ciencias de la Conducta, 32(1), 99-127.

Medina-Garrido, J.A., Biedma-Ferrer, J.M., & Ramos-Rodríguez, A.R. (2019). Moderating ef-fects of gender and family resposibilities on the relations between work-family policies and job performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management.

Miyake, A., Friedman, N.P., Emerson, M.J., Witzki, A.H., Howerter, A. & Wager, T.D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex ‘‘frontal lobe’’ tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49-100.

Murphy, K., & Barkley, R.A. (1996). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: Comor-bidities and adaptive impairments. Comprehensive Psychology, 37(6) 393-401.

Nadeau, K.G. (1997). ADD in the workplace: Choices, changes, and challenges. Florence, KY: Brun-ner/Mazel.

Nadeau, K.G. (2005). Career choices and workplace challenges for individuals with ADHD. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(5), 549-563.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill.

Organ, D. W. (1977). A reappraisal and reinterpretation of the satisfaction-causes-performance hypothesis. Academy of Management Review, 2(1), 46-53.

Organ, D. W. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior and the good soldier. En M. G. Rumsey, C. B. Walker & J. H. Harris (Eds.), Personnel selection and classification (pp. 53-67). Lawrence Earlbaum.

Organ, D.W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books.

Painter, C.A., Prevatt, F., & Welles, T. (2008). Career beliefs and job satisfaction in adults with symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Employment Counseling, 45(4), 178-188.

Patton, E. (2009). When diagnosis does not always mean disability: The challenge of employ-ees with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 24(3), 326-343.

Restubog, S. D., Garcia, P. M., Toledano, L. S., Amarnani, R. K., Tolentino, L. R. & Tang, R. L. (2011). Yielding to (cyber)-temptation: Exploring the buffering role of self-control in the relationship between organizational justice and cyberloafing behavior in the workplace. Journal of Research in Personality, 45(2), 247-251.

Restubog, S. D., Garcia, P. M., Wang, L. & Cheng, D. (2010). It’s all about control: The role of self-control in buffering the effects of negative reciprocity beliefs and trait anger on workplace deviance. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(5), 655-660.

Rich, B.L., Lepine, J.A. & Crawford, E.R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of Managament Journal, 53(3), 617-635.

Ringle, C.M., Wende, S., & Becker, J-M. (2015). SmartPLS (3.0). Bönningstedt: SmartPLS.

Rodríguez-Montalbán, R., Martínez-Lugo, M.E. & Andújar-Rojas, C.A. (2011). Análisis de las propiedades de la Escala de Engagement en el Trabajo de Utrecht en un grupo de empleados/as en Puerto Rico. Ponencia presentada en el 1er Congreso de Psicología Industrial Organizacion-al de Puerto Rico:”Acciones Estrategicas para la Gestión del Capital Humano”, 17-19 mar-zo de 2011, Ponce Hilton Hotel and Casino, Ponce, Puerto Rico.

Rodríguez-Montalbán, R., Martínez-Lugo, M., Sánchez-Cardona, I. (2014). Análisis de las propiedades psicométricas de la Utrecht Work Engagement Scale en una muestra de traba-jadores en Puerto Rico. Universitas Psychologica, 13(4), 1255-1266.

Rosario-Hernández & Rovira-Millán (2019). Development and validation of a self-rated instrument to measure in role/task performance. Unpublished manuscript.

Rosario-Hernández, E. & Rovira-Millán, L.V. (2004). Desarrollo y validación de la Escala de Ciudadanía Organizacional. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 15(1), 1-25.

Rosario-Hernández, E. & Rovira-Millán, L.V. (2008). Índice de conductas laborales con-traproducentes: Desarrollo y Validación del índice de Conductas Laborales Con-traproducentes (ICLC). Revista Interamericana de Psicología Ocupacional, 27(1), 16-27.

Rosario-Hernández, E. & Rovira-Millán, L.V. (2014). Posibles predictores de las conductas discrecionales en el lugar de trabajo en una muestra de personas empleadas en Puerto Ri-co. Revista Puertorriqueña de Psicología, 25 (2), 202-223.

Rösler, M., Retz, W., Retz-Junginger, P., Hengesch, G., Schneider, M., Supprian, T., Schwitz-gebel, P., Pinhard, K., Dovi-Akue, N., Wender, P. & Thome, J. (2004). Prevalence of atten-tion deficit hyperactivity disorder in male young adult prison inmates. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 254(6), 365-371.

Roth, P. L., Van Iddekinge, C. H., DeOrtentiis, P., Hackney, K., Zhang, L., & Buster, M. (2017). Hispanic and Asian performance on selection procedures: A narrative and meta-analytic review of 12 common predictors. Journal of Applied Psychology. 102(8), 1178-1202.

Roth, P.L., Purvis, K.L., & Bobko, P. (2012). A meta-analysis of gender group differences for measures of job performance in field studies. Journal of Management, 38(2), 719-739.

Rudman, L. A., & Glick, P. (1999). Feminized management and backlash toward agentic women: The hidden costs to women of a kinder, gentler image of middle-managers. Jour-nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(5), 1004-1010.

Rӧsler, M., Retz, W., Yaqoobi, K., Burg, E. & Retz-Junginger, P. (2009). Attention defi-cit/hyperactivity disorder in female offenders: prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial implications. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 259(2), 98-105.

Saks, A.M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Mana-gerial Psychology, 21(7), 600-619.

Santuzzi, A.M., Waltz, P.R., Finkelstein, L.M. & Rupp, D.E. (2014). Invisible Disabilities: Unique Challenges for Employees and Organizations. Industrial and Organizational Psychol-ogy: Perspective on Science and Practice, 7(2), 204-219.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. (2003). UWES Utrecht Work Engagement Scale: Test manual. Un-published manuscript. Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Schaufeli, W.B., Bakker, A.B., & Salanova, M. (2006). The measurement of work engagement with a short questionnaire: A cross-national study. Education and Psychological Meas-urement, 66(4), 701-716.

Schaufeli, W.B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V. & Bakker, A.B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies 3(1), 71-92.

Shaffer, D. (1994). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 151(5), 633–638.

Smoktunowics, E., Baka, L., Cieslak, R., Nichols, C.F., Benight, C.C., & Luszczynska, A. (2015). Explaining counterproductive work behaviors among police officers: The indirect effects of job demnads are mediated by job burnout and moderated by job control and social support. Human Performance, 28(4), 332-350.

Spector, P. E. (2006). Industrial/Organizational Psychology: Research and Practice, 4th ed. John Wiley.

Spector, P.E. (2012). Gender differences in aggression and counterproductive work behavior. In S. Fox & T.R. Lituchy (Eds.), Gender and the dysfunctional workplace (pp.29-42). Edward El-gar Publishing, Ltd.

Spector, P.E. & Fox, S. (2005). The stressor-emotion model of counterproductive work behav-ior. In P.E. Spector & S. Fox (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets (pp. 151-174). American Psychological Association.

Spector, P.E. & Zhou, Z.E. (2013). The moderating role of gender in relationships of stressors and personality with counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Business Psychology, 29(4), 669-681.

Spector, P.E. & Zhou, Z.E. (2014). The moderating role of gender in relationship of stressors and personality with counterproductive work behavior. Journal of Business Psychology, 29(4), 669-681.

Spencer, T., Biederman, J., Wilens, T.E. & Faraone, S.V. (1998). Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controversial diagnosis. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59(7), 59-68.

Sturman, M.C. & Trevor, C.O. (2001). The implications of linking the dynamic performance and employee turnover literatures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(4), 684-696.

Sulea, C., Virga, D., Maricutoiu, L.P., Schaufeli, W., Zaborila Dumitru, C. & Sava, F.A. (2012). Work engagement as mediator between job characteristics and positive and negative extra role behaviors. Career Development International, 17(3), 188-207.

Taylor, E., Chadwick, O., Heptinstall, E. & Danckaerts, M. (1996). Hyperactivity and conduct problems as risk factors for adolescent development Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(9), 1213-1226.

Tims M., Bakker A. B., & Derks D. (2012). Development and validation of the job crafting scale. Journal of vocational behavior, 80(1), 173-186.

Tims M., Bakker A. B., & Derks D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job re-sources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18(2), 230-240.

Tirapu-Ustárroz, J. & Muñoz-Céspedes, J.M. (2005). Memoria y funciones ejecutivas. Revista de de Neurología, 41(8), 475-484.

Tominey, E., Tominey, M. & Bruyere, S.M. (2001). Working effectively with people with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Cornell University Program on Employment and Disability Brochure, Ithaca, NY.

Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1993). Hyperactive children grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. Guilford Press.

Weiss, G., Hechtman, L., Milroy, T. & Perlman, T. (1985). Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: a controlled prospective 15-year follow-up of 63 hyperactive children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24(2), 211-20.

Weiss, M. D., & Weiss, J. R. (2004). A guide to the treatment of adults with ADHD. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(3), 27-37.

Wilens, T.E. & Dodson, W. (2004). A clinical perspective of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65(10), 1301-1313.

Wilens, T.E., Biederman, J.& Spencer, T.J. (2002). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 53(1), 113-131.

Wittchen, H.U., Kessler, R.C., Pfister, H. & Lieb, M. (2000). Why do people with anxiety dis-orders become depressed? A prospective-longitudinal community study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(s406), 14-23.

Wyld, D. C. (1996). The “ADHD card:” Coping with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity dis-order in the American workplace. Equal Opportunities International, 15(4), 22–33.

Young, S. & Bramham, J. (2007). ADHD in adults: A psychological guide to practice. John Wiley & Sons.




Cómo citar

Rosario-Hernández, E., Rovira-Millán, L., Santiago-Pacheco, E., Arzola-Berrios, X., Padovani, C. M., Francesquini-Oquendo, S., Soto-Franceschini, J., Pons-Madera, J. I., Peña, L., & Vélez, E. (2020). ADHD and its Effects on Job Performance: A Moderated Mediation Model. Revista Caribeña De Psicología, 4(1), 1–25.



Artículos Originales